A 48-year-old woman presents at the hospital with heavily developed subcutaneous collaterals over the chest. She suffers from slight discomfort, but no pain nor dyspnea. When bending forward, she feels her head swell. The patient has a history of right-sided breast cancer 5 years previously, treated with mastectomy and radiation therapy. Blood results show no increase of tumor markers (CA15-3 19 kU/L (reference < 30 kU/L)).
How to Cite:
Balliauw C, Koolen M, Verschakelen J, Wever WD. Collateral systems in superior vena cava occlusion. JBR-BTR. 2012;95(6):372. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/jbr-btr.731